The city hosted as many as 10 to 12 thousand inhabitants. Other colleges and universities emphasize curricula in sciences and technology, military studies, religion, and medicine. The King's intent was to respond to dissent while making as few actual changes in the status quo as possible. The SANG has been a counterbalance to the Sudairi faction in the royal family: The late prince Sultan, former Minister of Defense and Aviation, was one of the so-called 'Sudairi Seven' and controlled the remainder of the armed forces until his death in 2011. In addition, students are required to take six science subjects which are Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geology and Computer. In 1978, the country built its first grain silos. In addition to petroleum and gas, Saudi also has a significant gold mining sector in the ancient Mahd adh Dhahab region and significant other mineral industries, an agricultural sector (especially in the southwest but not only) based on vegetables, fruits, dates etc. [506] Critics claim that over the last 50 years, 300 historic sites linked to Muhammad, his family or companions have been lost,[507] leaving fewer than 20 structures remaining in Mecca that date back to the time of Muhammad. [574][575], In September 2017, King Salman issued a decree allowing women to drive, lifting the world's only ban on women drivers. Recent Activity. He united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud. The film was based on the 2018 murder of Jamal Khashoggi by Saudi authorities. Of the native dances, the most popular is a martial line dance known as the ʿarḍah, which includes lines of men, frequently armed with swords or rifles, dancing to the beat of drums and tambourines. Its modern existence, however, is attributable to it being effectively Abdullah's private army since the 1960s and, unlike the rest of the armed forces, is independent of the Ministry of Defense and Aviation. 1446 wurde der aus der ostarabischen Oase Katif stammende Mani al-Muraidi im Nadschd mit zwei Dörfern belehnt und gründete Diriyya nordwestlich von Riad. 1960 wurde mit dem Iran, Irak, Kuwait und Venezuela die Organisation erdölexportierender Länder gegründet, um die Stabilität des Ölpreises zu sichern. Jahrhunderts verstärkten sich aber die Familienfehden, sodass die Sauds 1884 durch den Stamm der Schammar unter Muhammad ibn Raschid (1869–1897) gestürzt und nach Kuwait ins Exil vertrieben wurden. There are several species of snakes, many of which are venomous. [524] During the Islamic revival movement in the 1980s, and as a political response to an increase in Islamist activism including the 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, the government closed all cinemas and theaters. [171] Investigations by both US and UK authorities resulted, in 2010, in plea bargain agreements with the company, by which it paid $447 million in fines but did not admit to bribery. The Red Sea in particular is a rich and diverse ecosystem. [219], Since 1960, as a founding member of OPEC, its oil pricing policy has been generally to stabilize the world oil market and try to moderate sharp price movements so as to not jeopardise the Western economies. Allerdings gab es andauernde Machtkämpfe innerhalb des Clans, die erst nach 1735 unter Muhammad ibn Saud beigelegt werden konnten. [299] Similarly, President of Syria Bashar al-Assad noted that the sources of the extreme ideology of the terrorist organization ISIS and other such salafist extremist groups are the Wahabbism that has been supported by the royal family of Saudi Arabia. Bouleversement en Arabie Saoudite : le prince saoudien Khaled Bin Alwaleed est vegan depuis 5 ans, il investit massivement dans les énergies propres et les alternatives végétales à la viande. [315] On 20 October 2010, the US State Department notified Congress of its intention to make the biggest arms sale in American history—an estimated $60.5 billion purchase by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [602], Saudi Arabia sponsors and promotes the teaching of Wahhabism, an ideology which has been adopted by Salafist Jihadist groups such as ISIS, Al-Qaeda and the Nusra Front. Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in 2000, the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom. [225] Counting only the non-Muslim-majority countries, Saudi Arabia has paid for the construction of 1359 mosques, 210 Islamic centres, 202 colleges and 2000 schools. [265] The Saudi government considered the two-month uprising as a "security threat" posed by the Shia who represent the majority of Bahrain population. In the spring and autumn the heat is temperate, temperatures average around 29 °C (84 °F). 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Corker: Everything points to Saudis being responsible for missing journalist", Turkish officials have audio and video evidence that shows missing Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi was killed inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey has 'shocking' audio and visual evidence of Saudi journalist's killing, "Saudi Arabia scraps execution for those who committed crimes as minors: Commission", "UN Chief's 'List of Shame' Drops Saudi-Led Coalition", "Saudi Arabia fails to join UN human rights council but Russia and China elected", "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification", "Status of the Arabian leopard in Saudi Arabia", "The Leopard in the Arabian Peninsula – Distribution and Subspecies Status", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Eastern Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Makkah Al-Mokarramah Region, 2014 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Aseer Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Hail Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Al-Riyad Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Al-Qaseem Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Najran Region, 2013 A.D.", "Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Tabouk Region, 2013 A.D.", "OPEC Decides Not To Increase Oil Production", "Saudi Arabia's first step towards clean energy technologies", "10 Countries With The Most Natural Resources", "Saudi Arabia Sees Higher Oil Revenue as OPEC Cuts Boost Prices", "OEC – Saudi Arabia (SAU) Exports, Imports, and Trade Partners", "Online Education Targets Saudi Arabia's Labor Problem, Starting With Women", "Saudi Arabia doubles private sector jobs in 30-month period", "World Proved Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas, Most Recent Estimates", "Country Profile Study on Poverty: Saudi Arabia", "Saudi Stock Exchange, Annual Statistical Report 2013", "Saudi Arabia's Four New Economic Cities", "Construction boom of Saudi Arabia and the UAE", "Poverty Hides Amid Saudi Arabia's Oil Wealth", "Mal3ob 3alena : Poverty in Saudi Arabia English Version", "Saudi dissidents turn to YouTube to air their frustrations", "Saudi film-makers enter second week of detention", "A foreign Saudi plot to expose foreign poverty in foreign Saudi", "Poverty exists in Saudi Arabia too | The Observers", "Saudi Arabia's Sovereign Wealth Fund Raises $11 Billion Loan", "Saudi Businesses Are Struggling to Hire Saudi Workers", "Fate of Journalist Heightens Saudi Debt Worries", "Saudi Arabia ends domestic wheat production program", "Largest olive tree farm in Saudi Arabia enters Guinness World Records", "Inside the Saudi olive farm, the largest in the world", "Saudi Arabia Stakes a Claim on the Nile – Water Grabbers – National Geographic", Tourism in Saudi Arabia: Wish you were here, Tourism key to Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030 plans, "Saudi Arabia to offer visitor visa for special events from December", "Tourist Visa to Saudi Arabia: Revising Age-Old Policies for Visitors", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Census shows Kingdom's population at more than 27 million", "World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision", "Saudi Arabia Population Statistics 2011 (Arabic)", "Saudi Arabia's Youth and the Kingdom's Future", "جريدة الرياض : سكان المملكة 27 مليوناً بينهم 8 ملايين مقيم", Case studies on human rights and fundamental freedoms: a world survey, "Religion & Ethics – Islam and slavery: Abolition", "Mapping the Global Muslim Population. [609], Saudi Arabia has a life expectancy of 74.99 years (73.79 for males and 76.61 for females) according to the latest data for the year 2018 from the World Bank. The "sharek" visa process will start with 15 December, Saudia Ad Diriyah E Prix race. [160], The Saudi government and the royal family have often, over many years, been accused of corruption. The three main regional variants spoken by Saudis are Hejazi Arabic (about 6 million speakers[430]), Najdi Arabic (about 8 million speakers[431]), and Gulf Arabic (about 0.2 million speakers[432]). "[80], In 1995, Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke, and the Crown Prince, Abdullah, assumed the role of de facto regent, taking on the day-to-day running of the country. Russland | [479] Neither Saudi citizens nor guest workers have the right of freedom of religion. [495], Because of religious restrictions, Saudi culture lacks any diversity of religious expression, buildings, annual festivals and public events. Europa, Liste der Herrscher aus der Dynastie der Saud, Bedeutende lebende Angehörige der Dynastie, Saudi-Arabiens Herrscherfamilie: 42 Männer haben das Sagen, Saudi-Arabien alimentiert 7000 geldgierige Prinzen,, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. [452], In its 2017 religious freedom report, the US State Department named Saudi Arabia a Country of Particular Concern (CPC). [462] In November 2013, Saudi Arabia expelled thousands of illegal Ethiopian residents from the Kingdom. government. [289] Another documentary by Bryan Fogel, The Dissident, which excavated a web of deceit behind the murder, was to be released on the same day that marked second death anniversary of Khashoggi. ", "Tentative steps in Saudi Arabia: The king of Saudi Arabia shows some reformist credentials", "Support for shake-up of Saudi justice system", "When It Comes to Beheadings, ISIS Has Nothing Over Saudi Arabia", "Saudi Arabia to abolish flogging – supreme court", "In landmark decision, Saudi Arabia to eliminate flogging punishment", "Saudi Arabia declares all atheists are terrorists in new law to crack down on political dissidents", "Report: Saudi girl accepts lashing for assaulting headmistress", "The foreign policy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia", "Arab leaders issue resolutions, emphasize Gaza reconstruction efforts", Saudis and Extremism: 'Both the Arsonists and the Firefighters', "Old friends US and Saudi Arabia feel the rift growing, seek new partners", America Is Complicit in the Carnage in Yemen, Rights group blasts U.S. "hypocrisy" in "vast flood of weapons" to Saudi Arabia, despite war crimes, "Obama: Congress veto override of 9/11 lawsuits bill 'a mistake, "We finally know what Hillary Clinton knew all along – US allies Saudi Arabia and Qatar are funding Isis", "Saudi Arabia launces air attacks in Yemen", "Yemen conflict: US 'could be implicated in war crimes, "CIA using Saudi base for drone assassinations in Yemen", "The bizarre alliance between the US and Saudi Arabia is finally fraying", "The U.S. Might Be Better Off Cutting Ties With Saudi Arabia", "Trump signs off on $110B arms deal in Saudi Arabia", "US-Saudi Arabia ink historic 10-year weapons deal worth $350 billion as Trump begins visit", "WikiLeaks: The Saudis' Close but Strained Ties with Pakistan", "Iraq's foreign militants 'come from US allies, "Saudi Arabia and China launch 'digital Silk Road, "China's Xi Jinping calls Saudi king with pledge to boost ties", "Saudi Arabia, China Sign Deals Worth Up to $65 Billion", "Closer Ties: China And Saudi Arabia Sign $70 Billion in New Deals", "Wang Yi and Foreign Minister Adel bin Ahmed Al-Jubeir of Saudi Arabia Co-host the Third Meeting of the Political and Diplomatic Sub-committee of China-Saudi Arabia High-level Joint Committee", "Saudi Arabia's Mohammed bin Salman Defends China's Use of Concentration Camps for Muslims During Visit to Beijing", "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to fight 'terrorism, "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to put Uighur Muslims in concentration camps", "Saudi crown prince defended China's imprisonment of a million Muslims in internment camps, giving Xi Jinping a reason to continue his 'precursors to genocide, "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies? [481][482] Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Saudi ambassador to the United States, stated: "The time is not far off in the Middle East when it will be literally 'God help the Shia'. However, with King Abdullah's reforms from 2005, some cinemas have re-opened,[525] including one in KAUST. The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders (such as the Blue Hole (Red Sea) at Dahab). Page Transparency See More. Born 12.3.1971, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He said that Saudi has been funding an ideology that leads to extremism and the leaders of the kingdom are not aware of the consequences.[309]. English Translation of “Arabie Saoudite” | The official Collins French-English Dictionary online. [209], Although repeated theft can be punishable by amputation of the right hand, only one instance of judicial amputation was reported between 2007 and 2010. Within the framework of the 2016 National Transformation Program, also known as Saudi Vision 2030, the kingdom allocated 900 million euros to preserve its historical and cultural heritage. The migrants lack proper living condition, provision of food and water. [145], The rule of the Al Saud faces political opposition from four sources: Sunni Islamist activism; liberal critics; the Shi'ite minority—particularly in the Eastern Province; and long-standing tribal and regionalist particularistic opponents (for example in the Hejaz). Wadis, however, are very numerous. [128] On 18 March the same year, King Abdullah announced a package of $93 billion, which included 500,000 new homes to a cost of $67 billion, in addition to creating 60,000 new security jobs. [400], Serious large-scale agricultural development began in the 1970s. [61], At the end of the 4th millennium BC, Arabia entered the Bronze Age after witnessing drastic transformations; metals were widely used, and the period was characterized by its 2 m high burials which was simultaneously followed by the existence of numerous temples, that included many free-standing sculptures originally painted with red colors. Oman | [499] Non-Muslim festivals like Christmas and Easter are not tolerated at all,[500] although there are nearly a million Christians as well as Hindus and Buddhists among the foreign workers. [503] And at least one religious minority, the Ahmadiyya Muslims, had its adherents deported,[504] as they are legally banned from entering the country. [117], King Khalid died of a heart attack in June 1982. Articles 12.4 and 14.1 of the Executive Regulation of Saudi Citizenship System: 2004 law passed by Saudi Arabia's Council of Ministers. "[256][257] In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Saudi Arabia, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs and other Muslim minority groups in the Xinjiang region. As of 2013[update] four cities were planned. [229][230] However, the relationship between Saudi Arabia and the United States became strained and have witnessed major decline during the last years of the Obama administration,[231][232][233] although Obama had authorized US forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen, establishing a joint coordination planning cell with the Saudi military that is helping manage the war,[234][235] and CIA used Saudi bases for drone assassinations in Yemen. [80][81], For much of the 10th century, the Isma'ili-Shi'ite Qarmatians were the most powerful force in the Persian Gulf. [167], Although corruption allegations have often been limited to broad undocumented accusations,[168] specific allegations were made in 2007, when it was claimed that the British defence contractor BAE Systems had paid Prince Bandar US$2 billion in bribes relating to the Al-Yamamah arms deal. However, the private sector still remains hugely dominated by foreigners. Islamic dietary laws are enforced: pork is not allowed and other animals are slaughtered in accordance with halal. [79] The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca in about 571 CE. [565] As of 2018, two women hold cabinet positions in the Saudi government: Dr Tamadur bint Youssef Al Ramah, who was appointed deputy labor minister that year; and Norah bint Abdallah Al Faiz, who became deputy minister of education in charge of women's affairs in 2009. "[483], Saudi Arabia is one of the few countries that have "religious police" (known as Haia or Mutaween), who patrol the streets "enjoining good and forbidding wrong" by enforcing dress codes, strict separation of men and women, attendance at prayer (salat) five times each day, the ban on alcohol, and other aspects of Sharia (Islamic law). [80] Ibn Saud gained the support of the Ikhwan, a tribal army inspired by Wahhabism and led by Faisal Al-Dawish, and which had grown quickly after its foundation in 1912. [468] As a consequence, under Saudi rule, an estimated 95% of Mecca's historic buildings, most over a thousand years old, have been demolished for religious reasons. [399] The deal raised more than initially planned and was the first time the PIF had incorporated loans and debt instruments into its funding. [159] The following year Prince Nayef also died before ascending to the throne. [391] In November 2005, Saudi Arabia was approved as a member of the World Trade Organization. The regions are further divided into 118 governorates (Arabic: محافظات‎; muhafazat, sing. [351] The CIA World Factbook estimates 2,149,690 km2 (830,000 sq mi) and lists Saudi Arabia as the world's 13th-largest state. However, the superstar players Lacey Evans and Natalya were required to cover their arms and legs by wearing bodysuits during the fight, instead of the more revealing gear that they would normally wear. [200] Families of someone unlawfully killed can choose between demanding the death penalty or granting clemency in return for a payment of diyya (blood money), by the perpetrator. The kingdom has a long-standing military relationship with Pakistan, it has long been speculated that Saudi Arabia secretly funded Pakistan's atomic bomb programme and seeks to purchase atomic weapons from Pakistan, in near future. Saudi Arabian cuisine is similar to that of the surrounding countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the wider Arab world, and has influenced and been influenced by Turkish, Indian, Persian, and African food. Although now extremely wealthy, Saudi Arabia's economy was near stagnant. We haven't found any reviews in the usual places. [554] In practice, it is very difficult for a Saudi woman to obtain a judicial divorce. Philippinen | Saudi Arabia is a major exporter of fruits and vegetables to its neighbors. [328], Human Rights organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and Freedom House condemn both the Saudi criminal justice system and its severe punishments. In 2017, Saudi Arabia imposed a land, naval and air blockade on Qatar. They were beaten, tortured and electrocuted. Bangladesch | Viele islamische Gruppen in Saudi-Arabien und im Ausland, die sich an dem Dschihad in Afghanistan beteiligt hatten, sahen dies als eine Besetzung islamischen Bodens durch „Truppen der Ungläubigen“ und protestieren gegen die saudischen Herrscher, die diese Besetzung erlaubten. Animals such as gazelles, oryx, leopards and cheetahs[359] were relatively numerous until the 19th century, when extensive hunting reduced these animals almost to extinction. Saudi Arabia is one of just three countries which officially supported the Taliban regime. The percentage of Saudi Arabian citizens who are Christians is officially zero,[447] as Saudi Arabia forbids religious conversion from Islam (apostasy) and punishes it by death. Segregated seating, allowing women to enter, has been developed in three stadiums across major cities. [139] The Economist rated the Saudi government as the fifth most authoritarian government out of 167 rated in its 2012 Democracy Index,[26] and Freedom House gave it its lowest "Not Free" rating, 7.0 ("1=best, 7=worst") for 2019. A large part of the curriculum at all levels is devoted to Islam, and, at the secondary level, students are able to follow either a religious or a technical track. [546][548] A royal decree passed in May 2017 allowed them to avail government services such as education and healthcare without the need of a consent of a male guardian. [508] Demolished structures include the mosque originally built by Muhammad's daughter Fatima, and other mosques founded by Abu Bakr (Muhammad's father-in-law and the first Caliph), Umar (the second Caliph), Ali (Muhammad's son-in-law and the fourth Caliph), and Salman al-Farsi (another of Muhammad's companions). With the help of the Ikhwan, the Kingdom of Hejaz was conquered in 1924–25 and on 10 January 1926, Ibn Saud declared himself King of Hejaz. [544], Formula One announced to hold its 2021 race in Saudi Arabia for the next season. [71] The earliest attestation of state regality, King of Lihyan, was in the mid-sixth century BC. [citation needed] Fahd made it clear that he did not have democracy in mind: "A system based on elections is not consistent with our Islamic creed, which [approves of] government by consultation [shūrā]. In 2018, superstars like John Cena, Kevin Owens and Daniel Bryan refused to fly to Saudi, over the Kingdom's declining human rights records citing Jamal Khashoggi's assassination. [208] Studies have shown that Saudi Arabia has one of the lowest crime rates in the world although there are differing views as to whether this is attributable to the legal system or other factors such as social structures. Arab dynasties originating from modern-day Saudi Arabia founded the Rashidun (632–661), Umayyad (661–750), Abbasid (750–1517) and Fatimid (909–1171) caliphates as well as numerous other dynasties in Asia, Africa and Europe.[17][18][19][20][21]. Various Human Rights entities have criticised Saudi Arabia's handling of the issue. [citation needed], Shortly before the advent of Islam, apart from urban trading settlements (such as Mecca and Medina), much of what was to become Saudi Arabia was populated by nomadic pastoral tribal societies. King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, known as KAUST, founded recently in 2009. [260] The tentative rapprochement between the US and Iran that began in secret in 2011[261] was said to be feared by the Saudis,[262] and, during the run up to the widely welcomed deal on Iran's nuclear programme that capped the first stage of US–Iranian détente, Robert Jordan, who was US ambassador to Riyadh from 2001 to 2003, said "[t]he Saudis' worst nightmare would be the [Obama] administration striking a grand bargain with Iran. [311] In addition, there is an Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah military intelligence service. [48], Following the amalgamation of the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd, the new state was named al-Mamlakah al-ʿArabīyah as-Saʿūdīyah (a transliteration of المملكة العربية السعودية in Arabic) by royal decree on 23 September 1932 by its founder, Abdulaziz bin Saud. Einträge in der Kategorie „Prinz (Saudi-Arabien)“ Folgende 29 Einträge sind in dieser Kategorie, von 29 insgesamt. [147] Saudi Arabia is unique among modern Muslim states in that Sharia is not codified and there is no system of judicial precedent, giving judges the power to use independent legal reasoning to make a decision.